About Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean is the source and sink for several intermediate and deep water masses of the world oceans. Many aspects of its circulation, nature of the water masses and the response to climate change remain unknown primarily due to the lack of high resolution sea truth observations. The studies in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean are sparse and more systematic scientific investigations need to be conducted for a comprehensive understanding regarding the physical and biogeochemical changes occurring in this region. NCAOR is the national nodal agency for planning, coordinating and executing all facets of the work programme related to the Southern Ocean studies. So far six expeditions have been successfully conducted by NCAOR in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean [January-March 2004 , January-April 2006, January-April 2009, January-March 2010, January-March 2011 and December 2011- February 2012], involving about a dozen leading institutions in the country. The scientific results obtained so far have given new insights in to the various processes occurring in the Southern Ocean.